Tetrahydrozoline, a derivative of imidazoline, is found in over-the-counter eye drops and nasal sprays. Other derivatives include naphazoline, oxymetazoline, and xylometazoline. Poisoning can result from an overdose. Tetrahydrozoline is an alpha agonist and its main mechanism of action is the constriction of conjunctival blood vessels. This serves to relieve the redness of the eye caused by minor ocular irritants. When used, “only as directed,” tetrahydrozoline is an effective medication which shrinks blood vessels thus alleviating reddened “bloodshot” eyes. If taken internally, however, this drug acts like a potent high blood pressure medicine. Symptoms reported in both children and adults who have swallowed some of these eye care products either by accident or via malicious activity include marked drowsiness, low blood pressure, slowed heart rate, and possibly even coma and impaired breathing. Quantities as low as ½ to 1½ teaspoonfuls (approximately 1/6 to ½ of a half ounce bottle) have caused pronounced reactions in small children. Toxic effects following tetrahydrozoline ingestion can be serious and at times require close observation and treatment in an intensive care setting. Fortunately, no deaths have been reported.
Affygility Solutions has an occupational exposure limit (OEL) and control band assignment for this active pharmaceutical ingredient (API).
OEL Fastrac monographs are a cost-effective and convenient way to meet the requirements for PDEs (ADEs) contained in the EMA Guideline on setting health based exposure limits for use in risk identification in the manufacture of different medicinal products in shared facilities (EMA/CHMP/CVMP/SWP/169430/2012), and to obtain the following information:
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Affygility Solutions’s OEL Fastrac service is an user-friendly system that enables us to make confident decisions and focus on moving the compound safely through our facility. We can quickly access the database to determine if a new drug is within the OEL Fastrac library, and if so, immediately download a detailed OEL banding report. The OEL Fastrac system has been a helpful tool in our overall EH&S program.